The EM method is, however, in use for groundwater exploration in hard rock over several decades and has been successful in many areas.
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It has been used to delineate saturated weathered and fractured zones and select sites for water well drilling. It includes the very low frequency VLF method also which uses higher frequencies and a remote source. The FEM and VLF profiling are quite common for reconnaissance and to identify groundwater priority areas in hard rock.
The applications of EM methods have been on the ground, in boreholes as well as airborne. Search all titles.cenmeagurivi.cf/qini-best-headlines-for.php
Applied Frequency-Domain Electromagnetics by Robert Paknys (Hardback, 2016)
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- Frontiers of Polymer Research;
- Supplementary Information.
- History of the 22nd Bombardment Group - May 1944;
- Maxwell I: Fundamentals — Electromagnetic Geophysics.
- Applied Frequency-domain Electromagnetics.
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Groundwater Geophysics in Hard Rock. By Prabhat Chandra Chandra. Edition 1st Edition.
King, J. An accurate understanding of the fresh-saline distribution of groundwater is necessary for effective groundwater management.
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Airborne electromagnetic AEM surveys offer a rapid and cost-effective method with which to map this, offering valuable additional information about the subsurface. To convert AEM data into electric conductivity and ultimately groundwater salinity, an inversion A number of algorithms are available for this purpose; however, these are affected by significant uncertainty, owing to inherent nonunique characteristics of this process. The most commonly used inversion codes in hydrogeophysical studies were quantitatively tested using frequency domain AEM and ground data from the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands.
Following an investigation of inversion parameter settings, data were inverted for four inversion methods and interpolated into 3-D volumes. Using geological data and empirical electrical conductivity and water salinity relationships, each inversion was converted into groundwater electrical conductivity and split into fresh-brackish-saline regions.