This of course is contradictory to our daily experiences with classical particles. How then should this be understood? What happens in the transitional area between the classical world and quantum mechanics? The present book answers exciting questions like these in a way that is easy to follow and to understand and is shows that the link between these two worlds will have concrete and applied effects on our daily life in the near future. It will, for example, improve and change the conventional methods of information processing. With the help of quantum cryptography, it will be possible to communicate tap-proof.

Using quantum computers we will be able to solve highly complicated problems in a very short time. Reviews " In , he accepted a post as professor for theoretical physics at the University of Constance. His fields of activity were at first the General Relativity Theory and Quantum Field Theory, lately he has been doing research in theoretical quantum optics and the basic principles of quantum theory.

Werner Erich Joost Rainer Blatt Michael Esfeld Professor Audretsch has not only published numerous scientific articles which appeared in scientific journals and books, he is also the author of a number of books for a wider readership interested in physics, which depict the relations between physics and philosophy or physics and theology.

Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Darwin taught us that, according to the theory of evolution, our existence in itself has no special meaning; we are the consequence of random mutation and selection, or survival of the fittest.

This is a baffling turn of the Copernican screw, which puts us even farther away from the centre of the universe. We live in the age of bacteria and we are nothing but part of the tail in the distribution of possible living organisms here on Earth. A possible counter to this reasoning is the notion of a benevolent intelligence that designed the laws of nature so that our existence would be possible.

According to Susskind, this is a mirage. Using current versions of string theory and cosmology he provides yet another turn of the Copernican screw. This may sound arcane, but the book gives a consistent picture based on recent scientific results that support this view. This is no paradigm shift, but an intellectual earthquake. The author masterfully avoids the temptation to give a detailed account of our understanding of particle physics and cosmology. Instead, he provides an impressionistic, but more than adequate, description of the theories that have inspired us over the past 30 years, some verified experimentally such as the Standard Model and some more speculative such as string theory.

A more accurate description may have kept many readers away from the book, yet enough information is given to grasp the gist of the argument.

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The numerical value of the universal repulsion force represented by this constant simply boggles the imagination. Fine-tuning at this level cannot be explained by any symmetry or any other known argument. We can appeal to the anthropic principle, but this is often taken as synonymous with the theory of intelligent design.

Susskind avoids this temptation by turning to our best bet yet to unify, or rather make compatible, quantum mechanics and general relativity — string theory. Work from Bousso Polchinski and others implies that string theory contains a bewildering variety of possible ground states for the universe. In recent counts, the number is a one followed by zeroes — a nearly unimaginably big number — and most of these universes are not hospitable to bacteria or us.

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However, the number is so big that it could perfectly accommodate some pockets where life as we know it is possible. No need then to fine-tune; the range of possibilities is so large that all we need is a procedure efficient enough to turn possibilities into actualities. This is the megaverse provided by eternal inflation. The laws of physics allow for a universe far bigger than we have imagined so far and as it evolves it creates different branches, which among other properties contain different laws of physics, sometimes those that allow our existence.

This is radical, hard to swallow, and against all the myths that the properties of our observed and observable universe can be calculated by an ultimate theory from very few inputs — but it is remarkably consistent.

## Entangled World : The Fascination of Quantum Information and Computation

The topics analysed in this book are deep — it deals with many of the questions that humans have posed for millennia. It is refreshing to find a hard-nosed scientist coming out to address such controversial questions in the public glare, without fearing the religious or philosophical groups or even worse, his colleagues , who for quite some time have monopolized the discussion. Some will find the arguments convincing, some will find them irritating, but few will remain indifferent.

I borrowed this book from my local library a couple of months ago and found it so irritating that I gave up after the first few chapters. I would have thought that the inherent randomness of things argues against the universe as computer. However, the book does contain an unusually informative and quirky account of the theory of our surroundings, from small to large, and it is very entertaining and easy to read. As a sort of theoretical theory book, it is not real science that we are looking at here.

It takes the current theories of particle physics and cosmology, assumes that they are all correct and then constructs a new all-embracing theory. Perhaps the book is way ahead of its time. The most important force in the universe is surely gravity, so when some future theorist has finally developed a quantum theory of gravity, then we might be ready for it.

Lloyd has presented them with a great opportunity: surely the hypothetical intelligent designer and the hypothetical programmer of the big hypothetical QC within which we live might be one and the same.

I guess it takes a quantum-mechanical engineer to view things in such an odd manner. Also make sure that you read it twice and remember that the answer might well be God Created the Integers.

## Entangled world : the fascination of quantum information and computation

Following on the path of his previous collection Standing on the Shoulders of Giants , Hawking has brought together representative works of the most influential mathematicians of the past years, from Euclid to Alan Turing. Incidentally, Kronecker did not make the cut to be included, but his best friend Karl Weierstrass did. The collection outlines the life of each mathematician before reproducing a selection of original work. The sections are self-contained so the book can be read over time or out of sequence.

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Reading it in one go has its advantages, however: the beautifully terse ancient Greek text contrasts well with the flowery style of George Boole, for instance. There is a wealth of information in the original works reproduced and I mention here a few points that I found interesting. Archimedes, although better known for his engineering skills, was one of the best mathematicians of antiquity. What is interesting is his treatment of errors — although he knows the size of the Earth, he conservatively assumes a figure 10 times as big. It puzzled mathematicians for many years until finally proved in Isaac Newton has probably the shortest space allocated in the book, but quantity is not proportional to importance.

Newton was not only a great physicist, but also a brilliant mathematician: he invented calculus.

In another link between mathematics and physics, Joseph Fourier derived his trigonometric series while trying to solve a physics problem on heat transfer. Carl Friedrich Gauss, a mathematical prodigy, is considered by many as the greatest mathematician of all time. Less well known is the fact that he worked for a period as a surveyor and that he achieved international fame when he calculated the position of asteroid Ceres in Bernhard Riemann generalized geometry in a way that proved essential to Albert Einstein more than 60 years later.

Ironically, Riemann was worrying about deviations from the Euclidian model for the infinitesimally small. While Hilbert does not feature in this volume, his statement of the three most important challenges of mathematics inspired mathematicians who do appear.